The Great Pyramid of Giza is a defining symbol of Egypt. It is located on the Giza plateau near the modern city of Cairo. It was built over a twenty-year period during the reign of King Khufu (2589-2566 BCE, also known as Cheops) of the 4th Dynasty. Also, it is the last of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World.
The Great Pyramid was the tallest structure made by human hands in the world until Eiffel Tower was completed in Paris, France in 1889 CE. This pyramid had held the record for over 3,000 years. The pyramid rises to a height of 479 feet (146 meters). Its base measures 754 feet (230 meters). It is reportedly made of two million blocks of stone ranging in immense weight and size. Such pyramid cannot even be replicated by modern technology.
Inside the pyramid, there are three known rooms or chambers. Two chambers are located towards upper part and have been given names. They are called the Queen’s Chamber and the King’s Chamber by researchers. The lowest chamber was found incomplete. It has two passages, one leads up and the other down. It is the only Egyptian pyramid to have the two passages.There were even mysterious tunnels beneath the pyramid. The entire pyramid was then covered in limestone. It made it one of the shiniest objects at that time. Some say it could have been visible as the star on Earth from Moon. However, the limestone fell away long ago. The locals of the city of Cario used it for construction of their homes.
People have come up with many theories regarding why it was built. But the most widely accepted theory is that it was built as the tomb for King Khufu. Contrary to this, some researchers cite that no mummies or grave goods were found inside.
Some theories reflect the use of slaves for construction. While others say that it was built by paid workers both skilled and unskilled. There was also use of the ramp and hydraulic power for lifting and placing stones weighing 2-60 tonnes. King Khafre and King Menkaure came after King Khufu and built their pyramid there. But these could nowhere match the size of Pyramid of Giza.
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942 CE) was the first person to excavate the pyramid. He used modern techniques as well as scientific analysis in 1880 CE. He is famous for setting the standard for archaeological operations in Egypt. It is mainly due to him that people admire and appreciate the pyramid of Giza. His findings and complete research assisted the future researchers too.
The Great Pyramid of Giza is still an exemplary work of archaeology from history. Even the modern scholars cannot exactly figure how such a huge monument was built at that time.