Guide to health insurance in Spain

Guide to health insurance in Spain

Life Swift
Published on December 8, 2023
Guide to health insurance in Spain

All residents in Spain have access to the free public Spanish healthcare system, although private insurance may be necessary for certain situations.

The Spanish healthcare system ranks amongst the best in the world and is funded by social security payments, meaning the majority of residents do not require private insurance to access Spanish healthcare.

Depending on your circumstances, however, some additional health insurance in Spain cover may be required, while private health insurance offers quicker medical treatment in private facilities. Expat health insurance provider Bupa Global discusses the Spanish healthcare system and any changes that might apply to expats.

If you are living and working in Spain, you will generally pay income tax (social security) that goes towards providing you with free state healthcare in Spain. Additionally, as of 2015, illegal immigrants and foreigners not registered with the Spanish tax office are entitled to free state healthcare, since Spain overturned its previous ban implemented in 2012. 

Who is covered by Spanish health insurance?

All employees and self-employed workers in Spain are required to make social security contributions, which in turn entitles them to Spanish health cover. The spouse and children of workers are also entitled to health care in Spain, provided they also reside in Spain. Some additional conditions are listed below.

EU/EEA/Swiss nationals 

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals who have reached retirement age in their home country are entitled to free healthcare in Spain. In order to qualify, they must obtain a Form S1 (previously known as E121) from their country of residence. Acquiring this form prior to departure is advisable and will help simplify the registration process in Spain. You can read more about EU citizens moving to Spain.

European Health Insurance Card

EU residents staying in Spain on a temporary basis can use their European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) which entitles them to receive medical treatment at the same cost as a Spanish national.

Third country nationals

Non-EU/EEA nationals may have to provide proof of private health insurance before being granted a Spanish visa. Some non-EU nations, however, do have an agreement in place with Spain so it’s important to inquire about your entitlements with the consulate or embassy in your home country prior to arrival.


EU nationals studying in Spain will also be covered by their EHIC throughout their period of study. Non-EU students, however, may be required to take out a private health insurance plan prior to arrival, although their university can provide more detail.

How to register for Spanish healthcare insurance

Spain’s healthcare system is funded by contributions to the country’s General Social Security Fund, known as Tesorería General de la Seguridad Social (TGSS). Anyone working in Spain receives a social security number and will make monthly contributions via payments which are automatically deducted from their wages, with employers also contributing a percentage to the scheme for each worker. This, in turn, entitles employees to free Spanish healthcare. Re

Your contributions are based on the minimum and maximum contribution rates set by the government each year.

In 2017, general employees contribute 4.7 percent of their annual salary to the social security system, while employers contribute the equivalent of 23.6 percent of the employee’s earnings (or 29.9 percent including a professional contingency, and 6.35 percent for employees on indefinite contracts). Read more about Spanish social security.

If you are self-employed you are responsible for paying your own social security contributions, and you can apply for a social security number at your nearest Social Security Office (Oficina del Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social).

This involves completing a TA1 application form, as well as presenting your passport and a national identification card, such as the NIE (tax identification number) card. The NIE card is issued upon completion of a residency application.

If you have an electronic DNI or another certificate, you can opt to apply online, otherwise your accountant can complete the registration process for you.

Once you have been formally registered with the social security system in Spain, you will receive a document entitling you to medical assistance. This form can then be used to apply for a health card, known as a Tarjeta Sanitaria Individual or TSI.

You can receive your healthcare by applying at your closest state health center, where you must present your social security and national insurance certificates, as well as your passport.

Healthcare card in Spain

You Tarjeta Sanitaria Individual (TSI) health card is valid for four years and should be presented whenever you use a public health service or purchase a prescription from a pharmacy. The TSI covers care from doctors and at hospitals, as well as 40 percent of the cost of prescription drugs (free for pensioners).

Although individuals are liable for the remaining 60 percent of the cost, prescription drugs in Spain are relatively cheap. Treatment at home is also included, which can be particularly useful to the elderly and disabled.

Presenting a TSI card means you pay no fees when receiving treatment at hospitals or from a doctor in Spain. The 60 percent prescription fee at pharmacies, however, must be paid by you at the time of purchase.

Dental work in Spain does not fall under the public care system and must be paid for in full by the individual unless they hold a private insurance policy. Dentist fees in Spain are relatively inexpensive and the general quality of care is of a high standard, although private health insurance can halve the costs with dental insurance costing as low as EUR 10–20 per month. Read more in our guide to dentists in Spain

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